NOSAUKUMS Economics and Structure of Industry
APJOMS IV, 937 p.
ISBN 9780390169082



Development of economies; agriculture based; manufacturing based, service and knowledge based.

External economic influences on competitiveness including:

Macroeconomics and its impact on business - economic activity, inflation, exchange rates and interest rates.

Markets - nature & structure, perfect competition, imperfect competition, monopoly.

Government – regulation / legislation, taxes / subsidies, industrial policy.

Infrastructure - finance, transport network, business network (clusters), university-industry links.

Internal competitiveness of the business - price factors, non-price factors.

Structure of Industry.

Types of industry in terms of product, size, ownership, technology. The changing face of industry; globalisation, consolidation; the knowledge base; information systems; e-commerce; regeneration; infrastructure. The changing nature of business-to-business relationships and the impact of these on the nature of competition; joint ventures; partnering; alliances, supply chains and networks. Different forms of business; sole trader, partnership, limited company, public limited company. Introduction to business strategy and the role of functional strategies.


Buyer behaviour: from that of the consumer/customer to the organisational purchasing role within the contractor or supplier.

The marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion.

Marketing research and multi-media marketing. Sales forecasting techniques. Defining problems, collection of data, and analysis of findings. Development of e-commerce, electronic transference and its uses.

Marketing segmentation. Targeting and positioning. How can /should Contractors diversify? Changing role of Consulting Engineers.

Motivation & Team Working

Employment environment - advanced technology and the workplace; key employment challenges such as work life balance, continuous change.

Understanding people - individual difference and personality; motivation; psychological contract; conflict; power; politics, team working, Belbin.

Understanding organisations – organisation structure and theory; organisational differences between consulting engineers; contractors; subcontractors and suppliers.

Leading and managing people – strategic approaches; the nature of leadership in businesses and in projects, managing organisational learning and change; developing staff potential.

Project Time Management.

Project organisation: Organisational structure, team selection and management

Project planning: Project scope and objectives; work breakdown structure

Time planning: Networks, Gantt charts, resource histograms, resource levelling

Project monitoring and control: internal and external resources

Project start-up and closedown

Use of IT: Capabilities of project management software systems

Introduction to Management Accounting and Costing.

Sources of finance for business and projects. Capital investment appraisal techniques.

Estimating costs and profits for one-off projects such as new products; civil projects; constructions; engineering services. Estimation techniques. Sources of data. Break-even analysis. Life cycle costing.

Estimating costs and profits in business. Costs for decision-making; nature of costs; marginal costing; throughput accounting. Allocation of overheads; standard costing, absorption costing; activity-based costing.

Managing costs – budgets and variance analysis.

Hazards & Safety.

Health and Safety at work; managing work, variety of organisations and people as regards moral and legal responsibility for Health and Safety. People at work: recruitment, training, employment law, unions. Health and Safety: responsibilities of employer and employee; safety policies; risk assessment; regulations: Control of Substances hazardous to Health; Construction (Design and Management) regulations.

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